You have 3 attributes in the game: Firearms, Stamina and Electronics.
For each Firearms point, you gain 1% extra damage over the base damage of your weapon.
For each Stamina point you gain 30 extra health for your character.
For each Electronics point you get 10 extra skill power.
The attributes are directly influenced by the Gear you are using. They might also be influenced by other things, including Gear Mods. You also get a base number of points per level of your character. So leveling up will equally add points to all three attributes.